Population, Geographical Information

India, country that occupies the greater part of South Asia. Its capital is New Delhi, built in the 20th century just south of the historic hub of Old Delhi to serve as India’s administrative center.

With around 1.3 billion people, India is the second most populous country in the world. The average annual exponential population growth rate stands at 1.64 per cent during 2001-2011.


Geographical information about India

Situated entirely in the northern hemisphere, the mainland extends between latitudes 8° 4' and 37° 6' north, longitudes 68° 7' and 97° 25' east and measures about 3,214 km from north to south between the extreme latitudes and about 2,933 km from east to west between the extreme longitudes. It has a land frontier of about 15,200 km. The total length of the coastline of the mainland, Lakshadweep Islands and Andaman & Nicobar Islands is 7,516.6 km.

Border Countries:Afghanistan and Pakistan to the north-west; China, Bhutan and Nepal to the north; Myanmar to the east; and Bangladesh to the east of West Bengal. Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea, formed by Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar.



The climate of India can broadly be classified as a tropical monsoon one. But, in spite of much of the northern part of India lying beyond the tropical zone, the entire country has a tropical climate marked by relatively high temperatures and dry winters.

There are four seasons:

  1. Winter (December-February)
  2. Summer (March-June)
  3. South-West monsoon season (June-September)
  4. Post monsoon season (October-November)



India is the fifth largest economy in the world, with a GDP of $2.87 trillion in 2019. With an average economic growth of around 6% -7% per year, it is well ahead. India is a major exporter of technology services and business outsourcing, and the service sector makes up a large share of its economic output. India is one of the richest countries in Asia and one of the most important trading partners of the western world.

Since independence on August 15, 1947, the country has experienced enormous economic growth and has developed from a rural environment into a managed economy with high-tech locations for companies, start-ups and investors from Germany and abroad. Thanks to a conservative banking system and a strong service sector, the emerging country also survived the 2008/09 financial crisis unscathed and was even able to record an increase in gross domestic product of more than six percent during this period. The most important importing countries include China, the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Switzerland and the USA. The export-oriented economy is globally positioned with the most important partners USA, United Arab Emirates, Hong Kong and Europe.

India has the potential to become one of the largest consumer goods markets in the world in the next few years and German consumer goods such as cars are enjoying ever-increasing popularity. The successively increasing quality awareness of the Indian middle class represents an opportunity for brands that are currently less well-known in India to make a name for themselves among the general public. In the metropolitan areas such as New Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore or Hyderabad, a modern service, high-tech centres with well-known globally operating companies have formed a multicultural society. In the northern part of the subcontinent, you can find many global companies with agricultural relevance, whereas the south stands out for its large number of IT companies. In addition to iron ore and bauxite, India also has large deposits of oil and coal. Most of the natural resources are used for export.


Political system

Parliamentary democracy in India is both the oldest in Asia and the largest in the world. There is a separation of powers in the legislative, executive and judicial branches. The political leadership in 2020 consists of President Ram Nath Kovind and Prime Minister Narendra Modi. 

The Political system of India works within the framework of the country's constitution. India is a parliamentary secular democratic republic in which the President of India is the head of state and the Prime Minister of India is the head of government. It is based on the federal structure of government although the word is not used in the constitution itself. India follows the dual polity system, i.e., a double government (federal in nature) that consists of the central authority at the center and states at the periphery. The constitution defines the organizational powers and limitations of both central and state governments, and it is well recognized, fluid (Preamble of the constitution being rigid and to dictate further amendments to the constitution) and considered supreme; i.e., the laws of the nation must confirm to it.

When compared to other democracies, India has had a large number of political parties during its history under democratic governance. It has been estimated that over 200 parties were formed after India became independent in 1947. The two main parties in India are the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), which is the leading right-wing party, and the Indian National Congress (INC) or Congress, which is the leading centre-left leaning party. These two parties currently dominate national politics, both adhering their policies loosely to their places on the left–right political spectrum. At present, there are eight national parties and many more state parties.