Egypt covers an area of more than 1,000,000 square kilometres (386,102 square miles) and is thus almost three times as large as the Federal Republic of Germany. Israel, Sudan and Libya are Egypt's neighboring countries. In the west and south, it shares borders with countries on the African continent, while bordering on the Mediterranean Sea in the north and the Red Sea in the east. Almost 97 percent of Egypt is covered by desert. The Nile River flows through the country from north to south.

With a population of over 100 million people, Egypt is the most populous country in Africa. Its gross domestic product is over 300 billion US dollars. Accordingly, Egypt is a large, important market and acts as a gateway to the markets of Africa and Asia.

Around 45 percent of the population live in cities, with about half the population living in the megacities of Cairo, Alexandria and Giza.

Egypt is the most industrialized country in Africa, after South Africa. Oil and gas exports, along with tourism, are the most important pillars for the economy. About half of Egypt's GDP is generated in the service sector.

The Egyptian armed forces are significant to the economy, directly or indirectly accounting for one third of economic output.