The history of Egypt can be traced back to around 11,000 BC. The first dynasties of Egypt already existed in 3,000 B.C. They had the first pyramids built, which can still be seen today. The Egyptians of today are proud of their country’s rich historical tradition.
Between 639 and 642, the Arabs conquered Egypt and brought Sunni Islam into the country. In 643, they founded the Fustat camp near the ancient Egyptian city of Memphis and the Roman-Christian fortress of Babylon. Fustat and its surroundings henceforth served as the administrative center of Egypt. For the first time since the era of the Pharaohs, Egypt again became an independent political power under the Tulunids from 868 onwards after declaring independence.
Muhammad Ali Pasha ruled from 1805 to 1840. His son, Muhammad Said, granted the French special permits to build the Suez Canal between 1854 and 1856. This was opened in 1869 and has since connected the Mediterranean Sea with the Indian Ocean, via the Red Sea, thus shortening the sea route from Europe to Asia by around 6,500 km. The Suez Canal came under the Franco-British debt administration council in 1876. When World War I broke out, Egypt formally became a British protectorate as the Sultanate of Egypt. The British saw themselves forced to permit Egyptian independence on 28 February 1922. On 15 March 1922, Sultan Fuad proclaimed the independent Kingdom of Egypt. The king was forced to abdicate in 1952. Soon afterwards, the Republic of Egypt was proclaimed on 18 June 1953. Gamal Abdel Nasser was Prime Minister of Egypt from 1952 to 1954, and then President of the Republic from 1954 to 1970. In 1956, he nationalized the Suez Canal. At that point, Israel, Great Britain and France declared war on Egypt. However, at the end of the “Suez War”, the USA, the Soviet Union and the UN forced the three states to withdraw from Egypt. Egyptian sovereignty and ownership of the canal were confirmed.
In 2011, the long-time president, Hosni Mubarak, was deposed after mass protests during the "Arab Spring". Mohammed Mursi then won the presidency in free elections, which, however ended in 2013, with mass demonstrations and a military coup. The military commander, Abd al-Fattah as-Sisi, has ruled Egypt since 2013.